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Electronic Components, Parts and Their Function

Electronic components are basic electronic element or electronic parts usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads.

Electronic Components are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, oscillator, wireless). Some of the main Electronic Components are: resistor, capacitor, transistor, diode, operational amplifier, resistor array, logic gate etc.

Types of Electronic Components

Electronic Components are of 2 types: Active and Passive Electronic Components.

  • Passive electronic components are those that do not have gain or directionality. They are also called Electrical elements or electrical components. e.g. resistors, capacitors, diodes, Inductors.
  • Active components are those that have gain or directionality. e.g. transistors, integrated circuits or ICs, logic gates.

Electronic Components and Their Functions

  1. Terminals and Connectors: Components to make electrical connection.
  2. Resistors: Components used to resist current.
  3. Switches: Components that may be made to either conduct (closed) or not (open).
  4. Capacitors: Components that store electrical charge in an electrical field.
  5. Magnetic or Inductive Components: These are Electrical components that use magnetism.
  6. Network Components: Components that use more than 1 type of Passive Component.
  7. Piezoelectric devices, crystals, resonators: Passive components that use piezoelectric. effect.
  8. Semiconductors: Electronic control components with no moving parts.
  9. Diodes: Components that conduct electricity in only one direction.
  10. Transistors: A semiconductor device capable of amplification.
  11. Integrated Circuits or ICs: A microelectronic computer electronic circuit incorporated into a chip or semiconductor; a whole system rather than a single component

Electronic Components Abbreviations

Here is a list of Electronic Component name abbreviations widely used in the electronics industry:



  • AE: aerial, antenna
  • B: battery
  • BR: bridge rectifier
  • C: capacitor
  • CRT: cathode ray tube
  • D or CR: diode
  • F: fuse
  • GDT: gas discharge tube
  • IC: integrated circuit
  • J: wire link
  • JFET: junction gate field-effect transistor
  • L: inductor
  • LCD: Liquid crystal display
  • LDR: light dependent resistor
  • LED: light emitting diode
  • LS: speaker
  • M: motor
  • MCB: circuit breaker


  • Mic: microphone
  • Ne: neon lamp
  • OP: Operational Amplifier
  • PCB: printed circuit board
  • PU: pickup
  • Q: transistor
  • R: resistor
  • RLA: RY: relay
  • SCR: silicon controlled rectifier
  • FET: field effect transistor
  • MOSFET: Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor
  • TFT: thin film transistor(display)
  • VLSI: very large scale integration
    Integrated Circuit (IC)

    Integrated Circuit (IC)

  • DSP: digital signal processor
  • SW: switch
  • T: transformer
  • TH: thermistor
  • TP: test point
  • Tr: transistor
  • U:integrated circuit
  • V: valve (tube)
  • VC: variable capacitor
  • VFD: vacuum fluorescent display
  • VR: variable resistor
  • X: crystal, ceramic resonator
  • XMER: transformer
  • XTAL: crystal
  • Z: zener diode

Electronic Companies (Manufacturers, Suppliers and Exporters):

  1. Allied Electronics : List and details of all Actives and Passive Electronic Components.


  2. Electronics Design World: Electronic components distributor Newark offers semiconductors, passives, interconnects, electromechanical, power source, specialty products, test and measurement equipment.
  3. PartNumber.com – Free part utility to assign part numbers: An applet that assigns intelligent (significant) part numbers to components in electronic products.


  4. Electronic Components Database – otxi.com: Online Technology Exchange, Inc.Electronic Component Distributor for Obsolete, Hard to Find, discontinued Integrated Circuits and Semiconductors. Providing an online parts search component database.
  5. TOYO COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT CO. LTD., Japan: Manufacturers and Suppliers of: Synthetic Quartz Crystals & Crystal Blanks, Microprocessor use/High Stability Ultra-Miniature & Surface


    Mount Type Crystals, HCM-Filters for Mobile/Cordless Telephones, Paging Receivers & other Communication Systems, SPXO / TCXO / DTCXO & OCXO Type Crystal Oscillators, Saw Devices upto 1-GHz

  6. NIC COMPONENTS CORPORATION, U.S.A./Japan: Manufacturers and Suppliers of: Multi-Layer Ceramic Chip Capacitors, Chip Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors, Chip Resistors/Resistor Networks, SMT Thermistors /Inductors / Varistors,
    Logic Gates

    Logic Gates

    Tantalum Chip Capacitors, Metallized Polyester Film Capacitor Chips, Leaded Miniature Electrolytic / Tantalum Capacitors, Ferrite Beads & Rectifier Diodes

  7. RCD COMPONENTS, U.S.A. : Manufacturers and Suppliers of:Surface Mount Products, Chip Resistors, SIP-Networks & Active/Passive-Delay Lines, Resistor Network in Surface Mount, SIP/DIP packages, Wire-Wound Resistors, Resistance Standards, Carbon-Film, Metal Film & Metal Oxide Resistors, Special Purpose High Precision Resistors, Inductive Products/ Delay Lines, Surface Mount Ceramic Chip Capacitors, Surface Mount Tantalum Chip Capacitors
  8. RARA ELECTRONICS CORPORATION, Korea: Manufacturers and Suppliers of:Wire Wound Resistors, Power Film Resistors, RF Resistors, Current Sensing Resistors, Precision Resistors, High Voltage Resistors
  9. MEGAPHASE LLC, U.S.A. : Manufacturers and Suppliers of: TM Series Cables, VN Series Cables, Series 1 & 2 Cables, Series 3 & 5 Cables, Series 7 Cables, Jump Shot Coaxial Jumper Cables, 75-Ohm Site Line Test Cables, CM Series Test Cable, SF Series Test Cables, Site Line Field & Production Test Cable: SL Series, TM Series Bench Test Cables, Semi-Rigid Cable Assemblies, Micro-Miniature Semi-Rigid Cable Assemblies


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